E. Lauer, X.Y. Hu, S. Hickel, N.A. Adams (2012)
Physics of Fluids 24: 052104. doi: 10.1063/1.4719142

In most technical applications involving cavitation, vapor bubbles occur in clouds, and their collapse is affected by the interaction with neighboring bubbles. One approach to study the influence of these interactions is the investigation of the collapse of cavity arrays in water under shock wave loading. We describe in detail the collapse mechanisms during the collapse of a horizontal cavity array, with particular consideration of maximum pressures. As general trend, we find a pressure amplification in consecutive cavity collapses. However, by increasing the number of cavities, we are able to demonstrate that the amplification is not monotonic. A parameter study of the bubble separation distance in horizontal arrays shows that a smaller distance generally, but not necessarily, results in larger collapse pressure. Exceptions from the general trend are due to the very complex shock and expansion-wave interactions and demonstrate the importance of using state-of-the-art numerical methods. By varying boundary conditions, we illustrate the significance of large test sections in experimental investigations, as the expansion wave emitted at a free surface has a large effect on the collapse dynamics.


Shock driven collapse of a cavity array. The figure shows snapshots shortly before jet impact at (a) the second cavity after 7.5 μs, (b) the third cavity after 10.25 μs, and (c) the fourth cavity after 13.0 μs. Wave dynamics is visualized using the density gradient.